Do you know Gulabjal, Gulkand and Perfumes are made up of flower petals of which rose variety?

The flowers of Rosa × damascena, more commonly known as the the Damascus rose or scented, are used for making Gulkand, Perfumes, Gulablaj and many things.

Though there are suggestions of some other varieties of Roses to make these stuff but Damascus rose is the most common variety used.

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The Damask rose is a deciduous shrub growing to 2.2 meters (7 ft 3 in) tall, the stems densely armed with stout, curved prickles and stiff bristles. The leaves are pinnate, with five (rarely seven) leaflets.

Damask roses (Rosa damascena) are among the oldest members of the rose family, dating back thousands of years. They are known for their white or pink double flowers and their strong, distinctive fragrance, which is why the flowers are often used in making perfumes.

Damask roses are easy to grow, resistant to disease and will make a lovely, fragrant centerpiece for your garden. The plants have medium-green leaves and white or pink flowers clusters on heavily thorned stems. Basic characteristics and care for this plant are as follows:

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Foliage: Green
Flowers: Pink. Double (7-20 petals)
bloom form. Occasional repeat later in the season.
Fragrance: Strong fragrance
Shape: Bushy
Height: 120 to 150cm ( 4′ to 5′)
Width: 90 to 120cm (3′ to 4′ )

The flowers are harvested for their fine fragrance, and are commercially harvested for rose oil used in perfumery and to make rose-water and “rose concrete”. Flower petals sometimes used directly to flavor food or to make tea and are considered safe for human consumption.

Growing scented rose plant in pots:

You don’t have to have a yard, ideal soil, or perfect drainage to raise roses. All you need is a sunny location and enough room for a large container.

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Transform a deck, terrace, patio, or balcony into a fragrant retreat with pots glowing with color. Container grown roses live happily for years when given what they need. Just follow these steps:

  • Pick the right pot. Anything with a drainage hole will work. (1/2 barrels are a great choice).
  • Use organic fertilizes to ensure healthy growth of plant.
  • Water regularly so that soil is moist, but not wet.
  • Prune as normal to deadhead, shape, and control insects and disease.
  • Re-pot every two to three years to refresh the soil.
  • Root prune if you’re trying to keep the plant small.
  • Transplant into a larger container if you notice a decrease in blooms.

Growing conditions required for Damascus/Scented rose for commercial gardening :

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Cultivation of rose plantation should be taken up in full sunlight, away from trees or hedges so that it gets sun shine at least during the whole forenoon. It can be cultivated on leveled field, medium to high degree sloppy hills and terraces.

A mild temperate climate is best” suited for Rosa Damascena. At the time of flowering, the temperature should be between 25 to 30°C and relative humidity above 60%. High air humidity above 60% and moderate temperature of 15- 20°C gives more flower yield.

Rosa damascena can be cultivated even in areas with high temperatures but flower yields are very low in comparison to those plants cultivated in temperate climatic conditions.

The roses flourish well at the foot hills. It withstands wide range of soil pH conditions from 6 to 8 and silty clay loam to sandy loam soils.

Irrigation is necessary in rose plantation at the frequency of 12-15 days during peak periods. However, when plants are established properly after two years, frequency of irrigation may be reduced. Proper drainage in the field is very essential to drain out the excessive rain water from the plantations.

The quantity of fertilizers and manures should be applied on soil test basis considering various factors like basic fertility of soil, organic content, soil texture, moisture supply, soil pH etc. You can apply any organic fertilizers to this rose variety.

Rosa Damascena is propagated through one year old stem cuttings. It can also be propagated through the divisions of old plant, lateral sprouts with roots and seeds.

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Stem cuttings are collected at the time of pruning in mid October to end of December; 20 cm long, 0.75-1.50 cm thick cuttings are planted in nursery; 2/3 of the stem length is inserted into soil. These cuttings are ready after one year for transplanting into main field.

Planting and Transplanting:
Soil should be free from weeds and other vegetation. If new land is taken for cultivation, wild bushes and perennial grasses should be cleared. Drainage and irrigation channels are to be made at the same time. Proper marking of land at optimum distance is done. 1.5 x 1.5 m2 spacing is sufficient for optimum growth of plants.

Pruning is very important operation in Rosa damascena. It requires a dormant or resting period before flowering. In temperate climatic conditions, the dormancy requirement is met naturally due to low winter temperature when plant goes under dormancy and sheds its leaves.

Fun & Healthy Activity -

Gulkand Recipe - How to make Gulkand at home

Gulkand is undoubtedly the most delicious preparation.It is also naturally rich in calcium and has antioxidant activity.It can be used year-round by persons of all constitutions.

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Gulkand has been traditionally used as a cooling tonic for fatigue, lethargy, muscular aches,itching, and heat-related conditions.

Prep Time: 15 mins | Makes: 2 tbsp


  • Gulab petals (Petals of damascus rose). - 2 cups
  • Granulated Sugar - 2 cups
  • Cardamom powder(Elaichi). - 1 tablespoon


  • Gently wash the petals with water and let them dry on a dry cloth.
  • chop the petals into pieces.
  • Add equal amount of sugar by weight in the petals.
  • Spread a layer of rose petals in a dry glass bottle with a lid.
  • Now spread a layer of sugar over the rose petals evenly.
  • Then again spread a layer of petals over the sugar layer.
  • Repeat till all the petals are over.
  • Close the glass bottle with a lid and keep it in the sunlight for 7 - 10 days.
  • Mix the gulkand every other day using a clean spoon.
  • Store in an airtight container and refrigerate it.


  • Have it every morning with a cup of milk.
  • Making Gulkand at home is better than using the commercial ones as they add the complete rose flowers,instead of just using the petals.please make sure that the rose petals are clean and free of insects.
  • Gulkand can be used daily and is an excellent summer tonic.

Damask rose is a very old variety, said to have originally been brought from the Middle East by the Crusaders. Their pleasing elegant growth, fragrance with nicely cut foliage and flowers held in open airy bunches attracts all. You must add this plant to your garden.

Recommended planters:

It becomes very important to select the planters wisely according to available space, the plants we grow or the colours of one’s choice.

Buy ready to use nutrient rich soil:

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In general use a soil-based compost placed over a generous layer of drainage material such as earthenware crocks, pebbles or gravel. Water and feed regularly, especially while plants are bearing flowers and fruit, when a high-potash fertilizer is recommended.

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Decorate planters or garden landscapes with these decorative pebbles :

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Using pebbles in a garden brings different colours and textures to the garden. Pebbles can also fill up otherwise empty space in the garden, leaving a visual that might be considered more interesting and aesthetic than simple dirt, soil or mulch.

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